1952 LAUNCH OF "MR" AT LMT OF THE USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
In 1949, the Laboratory of Measuring Tools (LMT) of the USSR Academy of Sciences (LMT AS, the predecessor of the Institute of Atomic Energy named after I. V. Kurchatov, and now - RSC "Kurchatov Institute"), together with OKB "Gidropress" prepared a technical specification for design of the MR research reactor with the capacity of 10000 kW and power build-up potential of up to 12000 kW.
Scientific supervision of the MR research reactor was carried out by academician I. V. Kurchatov. The reactor was intended for physical and technical research at IAE
In 1950, OKB "Gidropress", together with the Institute of physical problems (A. P. Alexandrov) and Laboratory "V" (A. I. Leypunsky), designed units of loop structures with gas and liquid metal cooling, executed working drawings of the "MR" reactor process part.
Components of various heat exchanging equipment for the "MR" reactor were tested on the test-benches of OKB Gidropress.
The "MR" reactor was launched In 1952. During operation TVEL studies were carried out in "MR" loops for the world's first nuclear power plant and other facilities. "MR" was operated for about 40 years.
"MR" research reactor
1954 LAUNCH of the WORLD's FIRST nuclear power plant in OBNINSK
It was decided to build the world's First nuclear power plant (NPP) at I. V. Kurchatov’s initiative in 1951. Obninsk was selected as the site of the NPP construction.
The work started in a very short time with active participation of many organizations. A significant contribution to the creation of the world's first nuclear power plant was made by OKB "GIDROPRESS" and ZiO. A simple and reliable steam generator (SG), whose main design solutions were later used in SG for reactor plants of various types, was created for the first time for power reactor facilities. In addition to SG, all primary and secondary heat exchanging equipment and pipelines were developed, the main heat exchange equipment was installed inside the building.
On June 27, 1954, the world's First nuclear power plant was launched, opening the way for peaceful use of nuclear fission energy, which marked the beginning of a new era in power industry.
The world's first nuclear power plant
1955 BIRTH OF WWER TECHNOLOGY
It was in 1955 that OKB "GIDROPRESS" began designing of the first water-cooled water-moderated power reactor (WWER) in this country in accordance with the technical assignment of the project scientific adviser Academician I.V. Kurchatov: WWER-1 project for the first Unit of Novovoronezh NPP with the capacity of 210 MW (el.). WWER-1 was being developed in difficult conditions due to the lack of experience in designing plants of this type and insufficient information on the results of foreign projects.
On August 8, 1955, the preliminary design of the first WWER was approved. OKB "GIDROPRESS" was commissioned to develop WWER-1 reactor and steam generator designs, and Ordzhonikidze Podolsk Plant was entrusted with their manufacture.
At the end of 1955, work began on the technical design of a steam generating plant (PPU) with liquid-metal lead-bismuth coolant for the 645 project nuclear submarine (NS). Scientific supervision of the development was carried out by A.I. Leipunsky. The subsequent stages of development, creation and operation of PPU and the entire submarine became some of the main activities carried out by OKB "Gidropress". This facility embodied many years of experience in creation and operation of physical and loop experimental benches, physical assemblies, performance of a large amount of research, experimental, computational and design work. During the development of PPU technical design of facility 645, the already developed units were improved based on the results of bench testing of equipment and experience in manufacture of 27/VT test-bench.
The WWER-1 technical design was approved in October 1956. Despite the lack of experience in designing of powerful vessel-type WWER reactors, the technical design of the V-1 reactor contained original solutions, whose correctness was confirmed by subsequent successful operating experience.
In 1956, OKB "GIDROPRESS" received from academician A.P. Aleksandrov a technical assignment for a WWER RP design with the electric capacity of 70 MW for Rainsberg NPP in East Germany.